Human Locomotion

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The Ideal Exercises for Managing Insertional Achilles Injuries
The Ideal Exercises for Managing Insertional Achilles Injuries

Despite the fact that nearly 30% of all Achilles injuries happen at the insertion point (1) (Fig. 1), the overwhelming majority of research has focused on managing the more common non-insertional injuries. This is unfortunate because insertional injuries are...

The Diaphragm: The Overlooked Core Muscle
The Diaphragm: The Overlooked Core Muscle

Every chiropractor knows that a strong, well-coordinated core is essential for maintaining spinal health. The core muscles work as a unit to increase intra-abdominal pressure providing just the right stiffness to unload the spine during lifting and loading tasks....

Does a Torn Rotator Cuff Really Require Surgery?
Does a Torn Rotator Cuff Really Require Surgery?

Click Here to download a PDF of this article Summary: Tears of the rotator cuff tendons are extremely common, and the vast majority of these tears involve the supraspinatus tendon. Because small to moderate thickness supraspinatus tears respond so well to conservative...

The Overlooked and Underappreciated Soleus Muscle
The Overlooked and Underappreciated Soleus Muscle

Summary: Soleus is the largest muscle of the leg, producing force of nearly 8 times body weight during pushoff. The world’s fastest marathon runners have the largest soleus muscles, and weakness of the soleus correlates with the development of Achilles tendinopathy....

Novel Exercises and Stretches for Managing High Blood Pressure
Novel Exercises and Stretches for Managing High Blood Pressure

According to the World Health Organization, hypertension is a leading cause of stroke and cardiovascular disease, which cause more than 15 million deaths annually (1). Affecting more than 1.3 billion people worldwide, arterial hypertension is diagnosed when systolic...

Five Simple Exercises to Prevent Age-Related Muscle Loss
Five Simple Exercises to Prevent Age-Related Muscle Loss

It’s a depressing fact but shortly after age 50, you begin to lose nearly 2 percent of your muscle fibers each year. Figure 1 is a graph of the average number of quadriceps muscle fibers present in adults aged 18 to 82 (1). Looking at the center of the graph, you can...

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Managing Tibialis Posterior Tendon Injuries
Managing Tibialis Posterior Tendon Injuries

Published April 1, 2015 by Dynamic Chiropractic Magazine Tibialis posterior is the deepest, strongest, and most central muscle of the leg, with fibers originating from the tibia, fibula and the interosseous membrane. The tendon of tibialis posterior forms in the...

How To Beat Piriformis Syndrome
How To Beat Piriformis Syndrome

Published Jan. 16, 2016 by Competitor Magazine The piriformis is a small muscle in the back of the hip that is notorious for causing trouble in high mileage runners. The word piriformis is Latin for pear-shaped, since the muscle’s wide base and tapered attachment...

Differential Diagnoses of Heel Pain
Differential Diagnoses of Heel Pain

Published January 13, 2015 by Dynamic Chiropractic Magazine Although heel pain occurs with a variety of injuries (e.g., calcaneal stress fractures and/or infracalcaneal bursitis), by far, the most common cause for heel pain is plantar fasciitis. The word fascia is...

NSAIDS and Osteoarthritis: Are the Rewards Worth the Risks?
NSAIDS and Osteoarthritis: Are the Rewards Worth the Risks?

Click Here to download a PDF of this article Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common of all joint diseases, affecting more than 30 million Americans. In the next few decades, the number of people suffering with osteoarthritis is expected to skyrocket, as people are...

Anteromedial Ankle Impingement Syndrome
Anteromedial Ankle Impingement Syndrome

Originally referred to as “athlete’s ankle” and later “footballer’s ankle” because of the high prevalence in soccer players, this condition occurs when osteophytes on the anteromedial tibia and dorsal talus collide during ankle dorsiflexion, pinching the soft tissues...

Managing Sesamoid Injuries
Managing Sesamoid Injuries

Click Here to download a PDF of this article Published in Dynamic Chiropractic, Vol. 30, Issue 3 The word sesamoid is Latin for "sesame seed." These small bones are located inside specific tendons, where they improve mechanical efficiency by pulling the tendon farther...

Gait Retraining for Knee Hyperextension
Gait Retraining for Knee Hyperextension

Unlike the hip joint, which possesses a deep ball and socket that provides inherent stability to reduce stress on the restraining ligaments, the knee is particularly prone to injury because the flatness of the tibial plateau provides little protection against...

Managing Limb Length Discrepancies
Managing Limb Length Discrepancies

Excerpted from his book, Human Locomotion Limb length discrepancy (LLD), which is divided into functional and structural categories, is a common cause of injury. In a study of 3,026 subjects with radiographically confirmed LLD, Harvey et al. (152) determined that...

The Peel and Stick Interdigital Neuroma Balance
The Peel and Stick Interdigital Neuroma Balance

Summary Interdigital neuromas are common, poorly studied, and notoriously difficult to treat. By offloading the third and fourth metatarsal heads throughout propulsion, the new Peel and Stick interdigital neuroma balance allows you to effectively treat interdigital...

The Peel and Stick Sesamoid Balance
The Peel and Stick Sesamoid Balance

Summary Sesamoid injuries are extremely common, especially in high-arched individuals. The new Peel and Stick Sesamoid Balance is thicker than most sesamoid balances, and is made of a blend of urethane rubber, PPT, and synthetic suede designed to significantly reduce...

Covid-19: Lessons Learned From Prior Pandemics
Covid-19: Lessons Learned From Prior Pandemics

Over the past 100 years, there have been 4 major pandemics that have collectively killed more than 60 mil- lion people. The most notorious of these pandemics is the 1918 Spanish flu, which infected 50% of the world’s population and killed over 50 million people....

In-Office Screening to Rule Out Vertebral Artery Dissection
In-Office Screening to Rule Out Vertebral Artery Dissection

In any given year, nearly one in 100,000 adults will develop a vertebral artery dissection (VAD) (1) (Fig. 1). Factors that increase the risk of dissection include elevated homocysteine levels, Marfan’s syndrome, family history of stroke, migraines, and even seasonal...

How to Rehab a Sprained Ankle
How to Rehab a Sprained Ankle

Ankle sprains are surprisingly common. In the United States alone, 23,000 people sprain their ankle each day (Fig. 1). The medical costs associated with treating ankle sprains exceeds $1.1 billion annually (1,2). To make matters worse, these numbers do not take into...

The Best Ways to Prevent Age-Related Muscle Loss
The Best Ways to Prevent Age-Related Muscle Loss

Shortly after age 50, the rate at which a person loses muscle mass begins to accelerate (1). Figure 1 is a graphical representation of the average number of quadriceps muscle fibers present in adults aged 18 to 82 (2). Looking at the center of the graph, it is clear...

The Importance of Toe Strength in Preventing Falls in the Elderly
The Importance of Toe Strength in Preventing Falls in the Elderly

In any given year, nearly 40% of senior citizens aged 70 and over will fall at least once (1). Each fall significantly increases the risk of not only sprains, strains, and contusions, but also fractures. The resultant injuries often begin a downward spiral of weakness...

Managing Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome
Managing Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome

Next to osteoarthritis, greater trochanter pain syndrome is the most frequently encountered hip injury, and it is estimated that it will eventually affect between 10% and 25% of the population (1). The typical patient complains of pain with single-leg stance and the...

Neuromotor Coordination and the Prevention of Running Injuries
Neuromotor Coordination and the Prevention of Running Injuries

For more than 30 years, researchers have been trying to identify specific risk factors that can predetermine whether or not a runner is likely to be injured. With an annual injury rate exceeding 50%, runners could save them selves a lot of time and frustration if they...

Strength and Stress Fractures
Strength and Stress Fractures

In any given year, more than one in five runners will sustain a stress fracture (1). In the U.S. alone, this trans- lates into nearly 2 million stress fractures annually (2). In a study of 320 patients presenting with stress fractures, Matheson, et al., (3) note that...

The Real Cause of Iliotibial Band Syndrome
The Real Cause of Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Iliotibial band syndrome is a common injury, occurring in up to 12% of all runners (1). The pain associated with this syndrome is often described as “burning” and is reproduced clinically with Noble’s test, in which the examiner compresses the distal band against the...

The Conservative Management of Hamstring Strains
The Conservative Management of Hamstring Strains

Of all the gait-related muscle injuries, hamstring strains have the highest rate of recurrence, with as many as one third of injured athletes suffering reinjury within the first few weeks following return to sport (1). Because their stride lengths may exceed 3.5...

Surprising Reasons for Orthotic Efficacy

Published September 15, 2015 by Dynamic Chiropractic Magazine Clinical outcome studies show orthotics are effective in the management of a wide range of injuries, including plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinitis and patellofemoral pain syndrome. In addition to...

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Biomechanics of Unilateral Overhand Throwingn Motion: An Overview

Measurement of Dorsal First Ray Mobility: A Topical Historical Review and Commentary