Human Locomotion

Interesting Articles

Dr. Michaud chooses clinically relevant articles & summarizes them for your educational reading pleasure.

Singh P, et al. Taurine deficiency as a driver of aging. Science. 2023; 380:6649.

This is an open access article and it is available at the following link: Taurine deficiency as a driver of aging | Science. Abstract: Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in humans. Earlier studies have shown that the concentration of taurine in blood correlates with health, but it is unknown whether blood taurine concentrations affect aging. To address this gap in knowledge, we measured the blood concentration of taurine during aging and investigated the effect of taurine...

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O’Keefe J, et al. Debunking the vegan myth: The case for a plant-forward omnivorous whole-foods diet.

I included this article because I just finished watching the Netflix documentary, “The Game Changers,” which pretty much says switching to a vegan diet will improve every aspect of your life: you will add lean muscle, improve athletic performance, and live longer. I was curious about the documentary’s accuracy, so I looked up everything I could find on the health benefits of veganism and this article stood out. The authors give a balanced view of the pros and cons of veganism/vegetarianism....

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Trieu K, et al. Biomarkers of dairy fat intake, incident cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: A cohort study, systematic review, and meta-analysis. 2021. PLoS Med 18(9).

Why was this study done? Many dietary guidelines recommend limiting dairy fat consumption in order to lower saturated fat intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, increasing evidence suggests that the health impact of dairy foods is more dependent on the type (e.g., cheese, yoghurt, milk, and butter) rather than the fat content, which has raised doubts if avoidance of dairy fats is beneficial for cardiovascular health. What did the researchers do and find? We measured dairy fat...

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Patan M, et al. Supplementation with oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid, but not in docosahexaenoic acid, improves global cognitive function in healthy, young adults: results from randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutrition. 2021;114:914-924

Background: Evidence regarding the effects of the omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA on cognition is lacking. Objectives: We investigated whether supplementation with oils rich in EPA or DHA improves cognition. Methods: Healthy adults (n = 310) completed a 26-wk randomized controlled trial in which they consumed either 900 mg DHA and 270 mg EPA, 360 mg DHA and 900 mg EPA, or 3000 mg/d refined olive oil (placebo). Cognitive performance and memory consolidation were assessed via...

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DE LA Rosa A, et al. Glucosamine Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Trained Mice. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2022 Mar;54(3):466-474.

Introduction: Glucosamine is one of the most widely consumed dietary supplements and complementary medicines in the world and has been traditionally used to attenuate osteoarthritis in humans. Glucosamine extends life span in different animal models. In humans, its supplementation has been strongly associated with decreased total mortality and improved vascular endothelial function. Glucosamine acts as a suppressor of inflammation, and by inhibiting glycolysis, it can activate the metabolism...

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Merza E, et al. The acute effects of higher versus lower load duration and intensity on morphological and mechanical properties of the healthy Achilles tendon: a randomized crossover trial. J Exp Biol. 2022;225(10).

In the late 90s, Alfredson published a widely referenced paper showing that heavy-load eccentric calf exercises reduced pain and improved function in even the worst cases of Achilles tendinopathy. More than 20 years later, it is still unclear exactly why heavy-load eccentric strength training stimulates tendon repair. There is also controversy over the best exercise prescription necessary to stimulate remodeling as some authors recommend performing 4 sets of 80 repetitions with light weights,...

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Oranchuk D, et al. Isometric training and long-term adaptations: Effects of muscle length, intensity, and intent: a systematic review. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2019;1–20.

The lead author of this paper, Dustin Oranchuk, has a history of publishing some of the best research on tendon remodeling. In this paper, the authors point out that isometric contractions have several advantages over conventional concentric and eccentric exercises. For example, isometric contractions are helpful during acute injuries as the muscle can be exercised in the most pain-free joint angle. This allows for accelerated rehabilitation as extremely large forces can be generated at these...

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Hong J, et al. Risk factors for contralateral tendon rupture in patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture. J Foot Ankle Surg. April 7 2023.

A small but unfortunate percentage of people who tear their Achilles tendon on one side will go on to tear the opposite side. The authors of this study evaluated medical records of 181 patients presenting with Achilles tendon ruptures to identify which specific risk factors were associated with contralateral Achilles tendon tears. The authors looked at all potential factors that might be associated with contralateral tearing including age, body mass index, occupation, blood type, underlying...

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Khair R, et al. Non-uniform displacement within ruptured Achilles tendons during isometric contraction. Scand J Med Sci. 2021;00: 1-9.

Achilles tendon ruptures are disabling injuries that lead to long-term deficits in strength, physical activity, and function. Despite the high prevalence of this injury, the optimal treatments for the management of Achilles tendon ruptures are poorly defined. The authors of this study used ultrasonography to evaluate movement patterns between tendon fibers in people with healthy Achilles tendons, and in people treated non-surgically 14 months after an acute Achilles tendon rupture....

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Kompel A et al. Intra-articular corticosteroid injections in the hip and knee: perhaps not as safe as we thought? Radiology 2019;293:656–663.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common of all joint diseases, affecting more than 30 million Americans. In the next few decades, the number of people suffering with osteoarthritis is expected to skyrocket, as people are living longer and the percentage of the population that is obese continues to increase. A common treatment intervention for osteoarthritis is to inject corticosteroids directly into the arthritic joint. In theory, these injections reduce the inflammation associated with...

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